The Sun's Heat
: STORIES FROM ZOOLOGY
: Fables For Children, Stories For Children, Natural Science Stori
Go out in the winter on a calm, frosty day into the field, or into the
woods, and look about you and listen: all around you is snow, the rivers
are frozen, dry grass blades stick out of the grass, the trees are
bare,--nothing is moving.
Look in the summer: the rivers are running and rippling, in every puddle
the frogs croak and plunge in; the birds fly from place to place, and
whistle, and sing; the flies
and the gnats whirl around and buzz; the
trees and the grass grow and wave to and fro.
Freeze a pot with water, and it will become as hard as a rock. Put the
frozen pot on the fire: the ice will begin to break, and melt, and move;
the water will begin to stir, and bubbles will rise; then, when it
begins to boil, it whirls about and makes a noise. The same happens in
the world from the heat. Without heat everything is dead; with the heat
everything moves and lives. If there is little heat, there is little
motion; with more heat, there is more motion; with much heat, there is
much motion; with very much heat, there is also very much motion.
Where does the heat in the world come from? The heat comes from the sun.
In winter the sun travels low, to one side, and its beams do not fall
straight upon the earth, and nothing moves. The sun begins to travel
higher above our heads, and begins to shine straight down upon the
earth, and everything is warmed up in the world, and begins to stir.
The snow settles down; the ice begins to melt on the rivers; the water
comes down from the mountains; the vapours rise from the water to the
clouds, and rain begins to fall. Who does it all?--The sun. The seeds
swell, and let out rootlets; the rootlets take hold of the ground; old
roots send up new shoots, and the trees and the grass begin to grow. Who
has done that?--The sun.
The bears and moles get up; the flies and bees awaken; the gnats are
hatched, and the fish come out from their eggs, when it is warm. Who has
done it all?--The sun.
The air gets warmed up in one place, and rises, and in its place comes
colder air,--and there is a wind. Who has done that?--The sun.
The clouds rise and begin to gather and to scatter,--and the lightning
flashes. Who has made that fire?--The sun.
The grass, the grain, the fruits, the trees grow up; animals find their
food, men eat their fill, and gather food and fuel for the winter; they
build themselves houses, railways, cities. Who has prepared it all?--The
A man has built himself a house. What has he made it of? Of timbers. The
timbers were cut out of trees, but the trees are made to grow by the
The stove is heated with wood. Who has made the wood to grow?--The sun.
Man eats bread, or potatoes. Who has made them grow?--The sun. Man eats
meat. Who has made the animals, the birds to grow?--The grass. But the
grass is made to grow by the sun.
A man builds himself a house from brick and lime. The bricks and the
lime are burnt by wood. The wood has been prepared by the sun.
Everything that men need, that is for their use,--all that is prepared
by the sun, and on all that goes much sun's heat. The reason that men
need bread is because the sun has produced it, and because there is much
sun's heat in it. Bread warms him who eats it.
The reason that wood and logs are needed is because there is much heat
in them. He who buys wood for the winter, buys sun's heat; and in the
winter he burns the wood whenever he wants it, and lets the sun's heat
into his room.
When there is heat, there is motion. No matter what motion it may
be,--it all comes from heat, either directly from the sun's heat, or
from the heat which the sun has prepared in the coal, the wood, the
bread, and the grass.
Horses and oxen pull, men work,--who moves them?--Heat. Where does the
heat come from?--From the food. And the food has been prepared by the
Watermills and windmills turn around and grind. Who moves them?--Wind
and water. And who drives the wind?--Heat. And who drives the
water?--Again heat. Heat raises the water in the shape of vapour, and
without this the water would not be falling down. A machine works,--it
is moved by steam. And who makes steam?--Wood. And in the wood is the
Heat makes motion, and motion makes heat. And both heat and motion are
from the sun.